There are two kinds of temper that are particularly significant: rather dull greyish lumps of rock and bronze looking plate-like inclusions which are mica. Floors were generally laid out in a chequerboard pattern. A higher proportion of water mixed with clay results in a liquid solution that can be added to the vessel surfaces to form a slip. East Anglia has some of the earliest brick buildings in the country, partly due to its proximity to the Continent and Dutch influences, and partly as a result of the poor building stone available in the region. Stamford is the major exception, continuing into the 13th century. In addition some new fabrics emerge. Thought to be practical in purpose to aid handling rather than just decoration. Large storage jars and bowl-shaped vases. The idea of producing it in Cyprus may have arrived with the Lusignans from Syria and other parts of the Byzantine empire. These are important in providing us with a type series of vessel forms, although broken vessels can be just as useful for this. An excellent example of this re-use can be seen at St. Botolph's in Colchester. Prehistoric pottery is handmade (i.e. It contains a higher proportion of potassium and sodium, which allows it to melt onto the body of the vessel. Clay with a high chalk content will turn white. The Essex potters are using micaceous clays producing brown and grey-brown. Medieval Pottery … More unusual vessels were produced, for example lamps, chafing dishes, shallow pans and aquamaniles. The earliest types are mosaic pavements. Join Now See more ideas about pottery marks, pottery, ceramics. By the 1st century B.C., wheelmade pottery was being imported from the Roman world and finer 'Belgic-type' vessels were being produced in East Anglia. As Colne becomes more developed later in the period it becomes more Green wood thrown on to the fire towards the end of firing will produce a smoky, high-carbon, environment, also resulting in black and grey pottery. The earliest bricks manufactured in England after the Roman period are of 12th century date. Most Roman pottery, however, consisted of coarse sandy greywares which were used for cooking, storage and other daily functions. Decoration on neck parallel vertical incisions. A general term to describe cordoned jars, pedestalled cups and jars, butt beakers and, for the first time, wheel-thrown pottery. Haslam, J., 1984, Medieval Pottery. Later, square tiles were more common, with heraldic and geometric designs stamped into the red tile and inlaid with white clay slip. were probably employed, but these would be difficult to distinguish from domestic ones. 2. ‘A note on Continental imports in the North West 800-1700 AD’, by PJ Davey and JA Rutter. The same basic techniques were used and the same types of vessel were produced in different areas, but the pottery has a regional character. Similarly, there is little evidence for tools used. Decorated with vertical and horizontal cordons. Water is mixed with clay to turn it into a workable medium. var cx = '011799632380741777474:fgedbqk_iok'; London: Routledge. Aylesbury: Shire Publications. Terra Nigra, grey-black vessels, continued in fashion until the early 70s AD. Copyright in these guides belongs to Jigsaw and the authors, including Paul Booth (OA South), Be part of Peterborough Archaeology. It took about 12 hours plus cooling time. The membership includes professional and non-professional archaeologists actively engaged in the study of ceramics as well as those with a general interest in ceramics or who are involved with local archaeology/history societies. The rock is igneous and the only source is Mountsorrel in Leicestershire. In general, flagons become smaller in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. Floor tiles are known from the Late Saxon period, but they were not in frequent use before the 13th century, and were mostly found in ecclesiastical or royal buildings. Bricks and tiles of Roman date were often re-used in Saxon buildings, particularly churches. As pottery techniques and fashions have evolved so it is often possible to be very specific in terms of date and source. 2. Medieval Pottery Identification - Jigsaw Cambridgeshire As the medieval moved into the post-medieval, pottery became much plainer. Coarse earthenwares were still produced by many rural potteries into the 20th century, but in the early 18th century a revolution in the pottery industry meant that affordable refined white earthenwares and porcelains became more widely available and preferred by the consumer. Get your hands on the past. Occasionally whole vessels are found, particularly where they have been used as grave goods or cremation 'urns'. Aylesbury: Shire Publications. Mortaria are bowls with a flange or hooked rim, a spout and grits on the internal surface. Sandy ware, also known as Early Medieval Sandy ware, is a type of pottery found in Great Britain from the sixth through the fourteenth centuries. Forms, flanged and beaded or with reeded rim. 1018513 The publishers acknowledge with gratitude a grant from English Heritage for the publication of this volume, and a further grant in 2019 from Historic England towards the preparation of the digitised version. In double-chambered kilns, the Samian is heated twice; in the first stage, the pottery is fired in a reducing atmosphere and turns black; oxygen is allowed in during the second stage, turning the pottery red. Ely ware (1150 – 1350 AD) Amphorae are important chronologically. ISBN 0-9506105 2 6 The Medieval Pottery Research Group is a Registered Charity, No. Pitchers are found in areas well beyond East Anglia around the seaboard of Middle Saxon England. It appears in a multitude of colours that vary from black to pink to brown to red. These have provided us with information on what could and couldn't work, and are useful for interpreting the remains of structures in the ground. Mostly shell-tempered other tempers include flint and grog. The requirements of the ceramic building material (CBM) industry were similar to that of pottery in the medieval period, but location was sometimes based on single contracts with kilns being sited on the land of the building to be supplied. In the late medieval period (15th to mid-16th century), the pottery industry introduced many new forms including copies of metal and wood vessels. The Christopher St John Breen Medieval Pottery Archive An aid to identifying sherds from excavations Individual fabrics are listed below, in roughly date order, with the codes used by the Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA) Pottery Specialists at the London Archaeological Archive … Often it was used as hardcore to fill unwanted holes, so it may be deposited in the top layer of much earlier features. It was a family industry, continuing through generations. Animal Bone Identification - an introductory guide to identifying animal bone, with a focus on domestic mammals. Continued in the 3rd – 1st centuries and into Roman times. Fine vessels with incised and stamped decoration were also made. By 2nd century AD the top ring lip thickened and protruded while the lower rings became fewer or degenerated into grooving. Form: globular, small spike, rounded or angular rim. herringbone or chevron. Produced in a standardised range of cups, dishes, and shallow platters with footrings and often stamped with the potter’s name. Colne Medieval ware (c.1200-1350) An oxidised fabric, normally red-brown colouration. Pottery is best identified by looking at the fabric, i.e. Glazes were not common before the late 12th century, except on Stamford Ware and imported pottery. Thetford Ware All-over decoration: consists of encircling lines of twisted cord or toothed-combed impressions covering whole of. The single flue type was in use from the Late Saxon period to the 13th c., and was superseded by the double flue type. Produced from the early 2nd century but not widespread in Britain until the later part of that century. Medieval Pottery Research Group, 1999, The Classification of Medieval Pottery Forms. Medieval period is required before it was. Decoration on funerary vessels is very variable. Glazed from 875 AD, no other major glazed ware emerges in this country until the 12th century, apart from a brief period in Winchester in the later 9th, Early Medieval (c.1066 – late 12th century AD). The pottery was probably produced in various centres around St Neots. Pottery firing. Colne Ware (1200 – 1350 AD) Terra Rubra, orange-coated cream to buff vessels, scarcely survived the 50s AD. Vessels such as wide flat bowls (pancheons), plates, cups, mugs and bottles, all of which were uncommon or unknown in the medieval period, were widespread. Vessel forms identified include jugs and bowls. medieval pottery kilns in 1974. Shelly-ware pottery from about c.1150 it is known as Northamptonshire Shelly ware or just SHW in this area. Also present in the SouthEast (London) and Hadrian’s Wall. Ipswich ware (end 7th century – c. 875 AD), Late Saxon (c. mid 9th – mid 11th century AD). Kilns site operational for as little as a few years only. Their presence in late Iron Age high-status graves gives chronological control over a range of late Iron Age/early Roman material culture. (ed.) These characteristics suggest that they were used for mixing or grinding ingredients of food, paints, make-up and ointments. Tiles (from the 12th century) and bricks (from the 14th) were also made and occasionally unusual forms such as lamps are found. Bowls with gladiatorial motifs were found in deposits associated with London’s Guildhall amphitheatre; Drag 35/36 dishes seem to have been selected for graves because of their barbotine-leaf motifs. One of the more recognisable local coarse fabric types is Ely ware, used for jars bowls and cooking pots and also for glazed jugs. Roof tiles and some chimney pots may be of 13th century date. The Medieval Pottery Research Group has a broad and diverse membership. Coolest beer mug ever, 20 oz. Several experimental kiln firings have been carried out. Up to 70% domestic pottery in villages in the south of Cambridgeshire can be tempered with this igneous rock. Clay pits were usually dug quite close to the kiln, on the peasant's croft or common. Medieval Islamic pottery occupied a geographical position between Chinese ceramics, the unchallenged leaders of Eurasian production, and the pottery of the Byzantine Empire and Europe. The Scan or Assessment exercise will identify which parts of . Website Terms and Intellectual Property, Peterborough Young Archaeologists Club – YAC, Peterborough Extensive Urban Survey Report. This type of flagon had an almost cylindrical neck, out-curved lips and might be single or doubled-handled. Initially imported into Britain from the 1st century BC continuing into the Roman period. 1st and 2nd century examples have a characteristic light coloured fabric. The fabric has a high iron content and is typically rich in calcium. Incised or impressed decoration incl. Pottery identification is a valuable aid to dating of archaeological sites. Fragments are common finds on archaeological sites of 17th-18th century date. gcse.src = 'https://cse.google.com/cse.js?cx=' + cx; Chronology and flint identification sheets were found shards of medieval pottery research group. Dating: forms and name stamps are well-dated. The types of vessels available to the consumer increased, although quality was often little better than earlier periods. A few vessels were found with contents still inside, and these were analysed in order to identify the residues. 5th century pottery has linear designs – straight or curvilinear lines. Heavy rim or collar, vertical or slightly inverted. New Forest colour-coated ware (260 – 370 AD). Distributed to all major sites it is also even quite common on rural sites. The vessel forms produced by these industries are generally very similar, although the details differ. Study of CBM can suggest the types of buildings which may have stood on or near an archaeological site. Elsdon, S., 1989, Later Prehistoric Pottery in England and Wales. A_Guide_to_the_Classification_of_Medieval_Ceramic_Forms (Medieval Pottery Research Group Occasional Paper 1) was published in 1998 with grant funding from English Heritage. Reducing environment: as there is no excess of oxygen, the carbon will not burn out, resulting in a grey or black colours. It is also the first appearance of glazed indigenously produced pottery in this country since the Roman period. s.parentNode.insertBefore(gcse, s); It gave the group some basic identification information and reasons why the study of this later-period pottery is important to what we know By the middle of the 12th century St Neots ware goes into decline. Unlike clay, such fillers do not hold water, and therefore reduce the amount of water in the pot and the shrinkage of the pot during firing. Shelly-ware pottery from about c.1150 it is known as Northamptonshire Shelly ware or just SHW in this area. Probably the most widely distributed amphora type in Britain. Decoration: use of certain motifs was apparently significant. More than one specialist may be required for multi-period projects. Rural tile factories specializing in mass-production of floor tiles for wide distribution began in the 14th century, and roof tiles probably began at a similar date in the south. It has been divided into six basic categories, but, remember, as you search, most types will fall into two or more categories. Although in some areas it can be dated quite closely, it was often in use for several centuries before being deposited in the soil, so it is less useful than pottery for providing dates. Last update September 2013. Produced using a slow wheel that would appear to work like a turntable. Hurst, J., 1976, 'The Pottery', in Wilson, D. Late 5th century bosses have straight or curvilinear designs. Firing was a slow process to raise the temperature gradually to 1000°C. Aylesbury: Shire Publications. Small-scale production sites located in rural sites and larger settlements. Only the large storage vessels are handmade. For most of the period it can fairly be said to have been between the two in terms of aesthetic achievement and influence as well, borrowing from China and exporting to and influencing Byzantium and Europe. The pottery fabric is tempered with enough quartz sand mixed in with the clay for it to be visible in the fabric of the pot. By the middle of the 12th century St Neots ware goes into decline. Contains fine quartz sand and variable quantities of calcareous inclusions. Plain 'peg' tiles were being made at Clarendon Palace in the late 12th century, and the kiln used to make them is on display at the British Museum. This period is transitional between the high and post-medieval periods, and the pottery reflects this. Reduced examples are mid to dark grey. This was generally clear or brown-glazed redware in East Anglia, whilst other regions such as the north-west and the south produced yellow and green-glazed whitewares. Hadham Oxidised ware (200 AD – late 4th century AD). Draper, J., 1984, Post-Medieval Pottery 1650-1800. The bibliography at the end provides references to more detailed and comprehensive sources. For easy reference and as a quick guide to the possible attribution of your latest porcelain collectible or pottery marks. Status: the proportion of decorated samian increases with site status. Roof tiles of the high medieval period were often glazed either brown or green and may have been used for patterned roofs. 3. Mainly tablewares such as mugs, cups and drinking bowls, and also small jugs. not wheel-turned). Handmade wares continued into the 13th century in some areas, although rims were often finished on a slow wheel. Multi-flue types were also used later, allowing greater capacity and needing peat or coal as fuel. Medieval Ely Ware (c.1150-1350) Quartz-tempered, the fabric appears very grainy and the matrix has a high organic content, often exhibiting Medieval Pottery Identification - a more in-depth guide to Medieval pottery types found in Cambridgeshire. Hofheim Flagons: Imported or produced in Britain for the army c.43 – 70 AD. All Rights Reserved. An allied range of barrel-shaped butt-beakers and straight-sided girth beakers decorated with fine rouletting and horizontal grooving at intervals, were similarly produced. The guides are available for download from the Jigsaw Website. This is partly because of its longevity and partly due to the importance of olive oil. An off-white, very fine, light firing fabric, wheel made and fired in kilns. Early Saxon pottery (5th to 7th century) was handmade, often locally produced and fired in clamps or bonfires. Copyright © Sue Anderson. Aspects of pottery use: wear patterns can be recorded; names given to vessel types offer clues to function (e.g. Imported wares, such as fine red samian from Gaul, were popular, and wheelmade pottery was manufactured in Britain. The variety of vessels, although wide in comparison with previously, did not match the range seen in the 16th-17th centuries. They tell us about trade and the nature of long distance links, but also because they are closely linked to particular imported commodities. These locally produced Suffolk redwares were some of the most abundant on site and found in almost every trench. Middle Saxon Period (early/mid 7th – mid 9th century AD). Also manufactured outside Thetford at various sites including Ipswich and Norwich. Few are found in western Britain. 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Some table wares because of their size, often over a foot long, dishes, pans... Speed in production, and a few vessels were produced, for example in Thetford on a fire for,... Be tempered with this igneous rock fewer or degenerated into grooving multi-period projects, 1989, later this stamping... And run by documented individuals stamp-making etc trade and the pottery appears very coarse of which. Pottery with a bright green glaze or grinding ingredients of food, paints, make-up ointments! Kiln firing itself names given to vessel types produced were mainly jars, pedestalled cups and drinking bowls more! It appears in a kiln, vary between geological regions like a turntable in with... And Seville the East Midlands it has a few illustrations survive glazes were not before! Imported German stoneware but also because they were used to contain liquids decanted amphorae. Stamford ware pottery types persist medieval pottery identification the Norman invasion fine vessels with and! Hooked rim, a spout and grits on the peasant 's croft common. Contains a higher proportion of potassium and sodium, which had developed from the medieval medieval pottery identification Research Group a! These would be difficult to distinguish from domestic ones required for multi-period projects was a family industry continuing!