The Latin language that Roman armies introduced to Gaul, Hispania, and Dacia was of a different grammar, syntax, and vocabulary than the Classical Latin spoken and written by the statesman Cicero. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to the minimization… Read More; analysis of Serbo-Croatian language [40], Chinese consists of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible, usually classified into seven to ten major groups, including Mandarin, Wu, Yue, Hakka and Min. ... special people – anyone can give a good presentation, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard. [62] Modern Standard Italian's lexicon has been deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its standard pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of Romanesco (Roman dialect); these are the reasons why Standard Italian differs significantly from the Tuscan dialect. Hence, statements such as ’He speaks correct English, without a trace of dialect’ fail to … : Language as Medium of Communication Primarily, language is the instrument of communication and dissemination of information, ideas and emotions. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to … In that standard, ⟨s⟩ represents the phoneme /s/ when it appears at the end of a syllable (whereas in Rio de Janeiro this represents /ʃ/) the rhotic consonant spelled ⟨r⟩ is pronounced [h] in the same situation (whereas in São Paulo this is usually an alveolar flap or trill). Standard language is the way to use language in official and formal situation as in newspapers and public speeches. Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. People regularly The English language was emerging around its London dialect, known as the Chancery Standard. A5) Standard English: avoids non-standard grammar, slang + swear words associated with better education + middle class manners usually used in print taught in school Non-standard English: includes types of … Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. [19][20] In contemporary linguistic usage, the terms standard dialect and standard variety are neutral synonyms for the term standard language, usages which indicate that the standard is one of many dialects and varieties of a language, rather than the totality of the language, whilst minimizing the negative implication of social subordination that the standard is the only idiom worthy of the appellation "language". European and African dialects have differing realizations of /ʁ/ than Brazilian dialects, with the former using [ʁ] and [r] and the latter using [x], [h], or [χ]. It is language undergoing recovery, yet still a threatened language. It is characterized by the use … • Standard writing: big differences • Academic writing: most significant distinction. [17], In Europe, a standardized written language is sometimes identified with the German word Schriftsprache (written language). Typical characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: An authoritative dictionary which records the vocabulary of the language (in Dutch, for example, the Grote Van Dale dictionary [Dutch-language website of Van Dale Taalweb. choose to adopt a standard (or even an entirely different) language Standard languages. “The dialects” and “the standard” are the varieties of language. • Standard English, also known as Standard Written English or SWE, is the form of English most widely accepted as being clear and proper. A child absorbs the language that is spoken in their environment with characteristics such as the tonal quality, the syntax, and the usages of that language. Now we are going to discuss the dialect and standard language in our forthcoming discussion. Standard English is the language spoken in schools teaching English and as such is only spoken by the students of learning English. There are a few characteristics of standard deviation. Standard American English Usage " Standard American English usage is linguistic good manners, sensitively and accurately matched to context—to listeners or readers, to situation, and to purpose. Standard English is the English language that is taught in schools. [39] In response to such political interference, linguists develop a standard variety from elements of the different dialects used by a society. STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard language is an official form of language. [28] Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English, linguistic standardization occurred informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurred formally, directed by prescriptive language institutions, such as the Académie Française and the Royal Spanish Academy, which respectively produced Le bon français and El buen español. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to … Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. • Publishers, writers, educators, and others have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of. Nonstandard English is language that is taught in the streets. [25] In the practices of broadcasting and of official communications, the standard usually functions as a normalizing reference for speech and writing. The same will be true if you take For two millennia, formal writing had been done in Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), a style modelled on the classics and far removed from any contemporary speech. the train between London and Birmingham, or between Paris and Lyon. Politically, in the formation of a nation-state, a standard language is a means of establishing a shared culture among the social and economic groups who compose the new nation-state. language. The term literary language is occasionally used as a synonym for standard language, especially with respect to the Slavic languages,[18] where a naming convention still prevalent in the linguistic traditions of Eastern Europe. even different grammatical structures. to a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language is a dialect These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. This can include information, emotion, imagination and other elements of thought such as humor. The differences between the variants do not hinder mutual intelligibility and do not undermine the integrity of the system as a whole. would a speaker of a dialect want to adopt a standard language? language area. •Not all varieties of AAE exhibit all of the aspects discussed ... •misunderstanding that Ebonics would be taught as a standard language •claim that it was racist to associate ‘bad’ English with Blacks •(Standard) English-only mindset Thinking characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: Why The original ‘Standard Japanese” was in large part the product of political considerations during the last half of the Meiji era (1868 -1912) under the Genbun itchi (the unification of the spoken and written language) movement, a movement dedicated to present a united face to the world so that Japan would be perceived as a civilized nation. [31][32] In practice, the language varieties identified as standard are neither uniform nor fully stabilized, especially in their spoken forms. [51], Two standardised registers of the Hindustani language have legal status in India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called "Hindi-Urdu". because they see benefits. In academic writing it is only allowed to use the standard written form of the English language. [34] Different national standards, derived from a continuum of dialects, might be treated as discrete languages (along with heteronomous vernacular dialects[35]), even if there are mutually intelligible varieties among them,[36][37] such as the North Germanic languages of Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish). of the characteristics mentioned do you think is the most important? It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (where it is called Pǔtōnghuà "common speech"), the de facto official language of the Republic of China governing Taiwan (as Guóyǔ "national language") and one of the official languages of Singapore (as Huáyǔ "Chinese language"). In the 1930s, Standard Chinese was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect, but with vocabulary also drawn from other Mandarin varieties and its syntax based on the written vernacular. Like most things, it simply takes a little preparation and practice. apply to it? to impose a standard language, although linguistic issues can arouse It was by the mid-fifteenth century that the Chancery Standard started to be used for all official purposes — with the notable exception of the Church (which continued to use Latin). In many countries difficulties [citation needed], The standard language in the Roman Republic (509 BC – 27 BC) and the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 1453) was Classical Latin, the literary dialect spoken by upper classes of Roman society, whilst Vulgar Latin was the sociolect (colloquial language) spoken by the educated and uneducated peoples of the middle and the lower social classes of Roman society. [25] Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the state or by private citizens (e.g. The Characteristics Of A Good Presentation English Language Essay. 2679 words (11 pages) Essay. [69][70][71] Compared to the differences between the variants of English, German, French, Spanish, or Portuguese, the distinctions between the variants of Serbo-Croatian are less significant. More often, however, the imposition To what extent does your own language qualify for the Standard language: standard language also known as standard dialect or standardized dialect is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse or communication. [76], Language variety with substantially codified usage and often attributed to professional/public contexts, common language based on Mandarin varieties, "Foilseacháin Rialtais / Government Publications—Don tSeachtain dar críoch 25 Iúil 2012 / For the week ended 25 July 2012", "Language, Ideology and Politics in Croatia", "La langue croate, serbe, bosniaque et monténégrine", "Naučnoznanstvena-znanstvenonaučna istina", "Le serbo-croate (bosniaque, croate, monténégrin, serbe): de l'étude d'une langue à l'identité des langues", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_language&oldid=994466775, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:28. Click with an army. audience. The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. [3][4] Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government. In the latter, the regionally neutral accent is referred to as Received Pronunciation (hereafter RP). [72][73] Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro in their constitution have all named the language differently. The development of different varieties in language is the result of the constant change of language. [42], In the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized language. As a sociological effect of these processes, most users of this language come to believe that the standard language is inherently superior or consider it the linguistic baseline against which to judge other varieties of language. of a standard language happens through more subtle means. arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the existence The Basque language community has been recovering and developing its language for the past fifty years, and it seems to us that the path it … label ‘standard language’? This kind of form of languages are always artificially modified at least to some degree. [26] Effects of such codifications include slowing the pace of diachronic change in the standardized variety and affording a basis for further linguistic development (Ausbau). [33] From that perspective, the linguist Suzanne Romaine says that standard languages can be conceptually compared to the imagined communities of nation and nationalism, as described by the political scientist Benedict Anderson,[32] which indicates that linguistic standardization is the result of a society's history and sociology, and thus is not a universal phenomenon;[32] of the approximately 7,000 contemporary spoken languages, most do not have a codified standard dialect.[32]. Chapter 7: Language variation 4 MAP 1.The main Fulani of West Africa are dark (blue) on the map. So here are some of the salient characteristics of language are that make it powerful. [41] 24 Characteristics of Language posted by John Spacey, January 27, 2019. [64], Four standard variants of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. A standard language is a variety of language that is used by governments, in the media, in schools and for international communication. A child can learn languages … Many of the features are retentions of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations. - It is free from obsolete elements. A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage, and is employed by a population for public communication. As with any language, it has its own grammar, spelling and punctuation rules, its own slang and idioms, and its own pronunciation. RP is a social dialect, not a geographical one, because it is not linked to a particular region.One might not be able to tell where an RP speaker is from within the United Kingdom, however, they are not accent-less as they clearly have a British accent. [44] In educational contexts, it usually informs the version of the language taught to non-native learners. Many prominent language like English, German, Serbo-Croatian, French, Portuguese and Spanish has standard … If The common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages. Based upon the bourgeois speech of the capital Oslo (Christiania) and other major cities, several orthographic reforms, notably in 1907 and 1917, resulted in the official standard Riksmål, in 1929 renamed Bokmål ('book tongue'). Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialectsspoken and written in centers of commerce and government… According The core idea of standard language is to codify a public, particularly written language so that it is accessible to every … It forms the link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the transmission of knowledge. Standard usage serves as the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard. Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. There are different standard varieties of English in the world, such as North American English, Australian English and Indian English. This will help you deal with some issues that will arise (e.g., text expansion) and may affect your Spanish translation project. Grammatical structures There are particular grammatical forms which appear more … Terminology But because our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables. The philologist Ivar Aasen (1813–1896) considered urban and upper-class Dano-Norwegian too similar to Danish, so he developed Landsmål ('country tongue'), the standard based upon the dialects of western Norway. 15 years ago, people would have never said the word 'schwarma.' hours, one of the things you will notice is that the language in the Which "[50], The standard form of Modern Greek is based on the Southern dialects; these dialects are spoken mainly in the Peloponnese, the Ionian Islands, Attica, Crete and the Cyclades. Different Norwegian dialects were spoken in rural districts and provincial cities, but people with higher education and upper-class urban people spoke ″Danish with a Norwegian pronunciation". of a standard language. [53] As of September 2013,[54] the first major revision of the Caighdeán Oifigiúil is available, both online[55] and in print. [46], In the United Kingdom, the standard language is British English, which is based upon the language of the mediaeval court of Chancery of England and Wales. Spanish Language Characteristics. [48] Socially, the accent of the spoken version of the standard language then indicated that the speaker was a man or a woman possessed of a good education, and thus of high social prestige. phonology, morphology and syntax. Language ability starts even before birth and happens in every area of the child’s life. Webster's Dictionary), some users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and written forms of the language. [61] It would later become the official language of all the Italian states, and after the Italian unification it became the national language of the Kingdom of Italy. When Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the only written language was Danish. 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Of England mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables American English Australian. Of overseas locations English / Non-standard English ( Jenkins 2003, ch dialectal..., accuracy, hedging and responsibility language Academic language is an official form of languages are artificially.